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This is a resource to go with the other references available here that are going to be part of the narrative of the Tours available from Triple Tree Tours. It gives the reader a good sense of the development of The Criminal History of London. This is a general guide, with more focused emphasis on each of the particular tours as presented.

5th Century                Hanging is introduced as a Capital Punishment
7th Century               Ethelbert introduces a penal system of punishments and fines with percentages going to the                                               Crown
10th Century              Public Whippings and Mutilations introduced as Punishments
1166                               Henry 2nd institutes legal reforms. The Crown and not Clergy decides crime and punishments
1188                               Newgate becomes the main prison for London and Middlesex
1196                               Tyburn is the site for the first Hanging, Drawing & Quartering
1197                               Fleet Prison is built and can hold 300 prisoners
1236                               A new turret is added to Newgate
1241                               Hanging, Drawing & Quartering becomes the penalty for Treason, by law
1241                               The use of The Hurdle is introduced to those convicted of Treason
1272                               Pressing is introduced as a means of extracting a Plea from a criminal

14th Century              Heresy is considered treason in Law

 

1315-1316                       62 Deaths at Newgate Prison are investigated
1351                                Henry 3rd defines Treason in The Treason Act

1381                               Fleet Prison destroyed by Wat Tyler’s men
1393                               New legislation prevents Gaolers from charging for lamps and beds
1406                              A separate tower and section for female prisoners is added to Newgate
1419                               Newgate closes due to Gaol Fever
1422                               Dick Whittington bequeaths an Improvement Licence for Newgate
1509                               Henry 8th introduces Boiling to Death as punishment for Piracy, Rape and Highway                                                       Robbery

1509                               Branding a V on Vagrants is now  enacted
1509                               A loss of the ‘writing hand’ is brought in as punishment for Seditious Writing
1509                               Whipping Posts emerge in towns and villages
1509                               A loss of Ears is now punishment for not going to church
1533                               ‘Buggerie’ is recognised as a Capital offence
1540                              Henry 8th defines 11 crimes as Capital offences
1540                              Barbers & Surgeons are given 4 bodies a year for research
1542                               Witchcraft is recognised as a capital offence
1547                              Witchcraft as a capital offence is repealed by Edward 6th
1563                               Elizabeth 1st recognises Witchcraft as a Felon

1315-1316                       62 Deaths at Newgate Prison are investigated
1351                                Henry 3rd defines Treason in The Treason Act

1381                               Fleet Prison destroyed by Wat Tyler’s men
1393                               New legislation prevents Gaolers from charging for lamps and beds
1406                              A separate tower and section for female prisoners is added to Newgate
1419                               Newgate closes due to Gaol Fever
1422                               Dick Whittington bequeaths an Improvement Licence for Newgate
1509                               Henry 8th introduces Boiling to Death as punishment for Piracy, Rape and Highway                                                       Robbery

1509                               Branding a V on Vagrants is now  enacted
1509                               A loss of the ‘writing hand’ is brought in as punishment for Seditious Writing
1509                               Whipping Posts emerge in towns and villages
1509                               A loss of Ears is now punishment for not going to church
1533                               ‘Buggerie’ is recognised as a Capital offence
1540                              Henry 8th defines 11 crimes as Capital offences
1540                              Barbers & Surgeons are given 4 bodies a year for research
1542                               Witchcraft is recognised as a capital offence
1547                              Witchcraft as a capital offence is repealed by Edward 6th
1563                               Elizabeth 1st recognises Witchcraft as a Felon

1571                               The Triple Tree is erected in Tyburn to deal with multiple hangings
1642-1649                      The English Civil War

1649                              Charles 1st is beheaded  at Banqueting House on Whitehall
1649                              There is a case of 23 Men and  1 Woman hanged on The Triple tree in one session
1666                               Newgate Prison is destroyed by fire in The Great Fire of London
1666                               Fleet Prison is rebuilt at the expense of The Warden
1671                               It is now a Capital offence to ‘lie in wait’ to injure or maim
1699                               Shoplifting is now a Capital offence

1713                               Stealing from a Dwelling House is now a Capital offence
1717                               Borough Compter in Tooley St opens
1718                               The Transportation Act is introduced and is in force for 7 years
1723                               The Waltham Black Act makes Poaching a Capital offence
1729                               The Fleet Prison is visited by The Parliamentary Gaols Committee
1751                               Those convicted of Murder are hanged within 48 hours and given only bread and water
1752                               The Murders Act is introduced to give Anatomists the right to the cadavers of convicted                                                  Murderers
1760                               The first and only Peer of the Realm to be hanged at Tyburn is Earl Ferrers
1770                              Newgate Prison is improved with reforms
1776                              Transportation is on hold due to The American War of Independence

1780                               Newgate is demolished by The Gordon Riots

1782                               Newgate rebuilt to the cost of 30k. Two sections divide ‘The Commons’ from ‘The State’ prisoners
                                      There are subsections for Debtors
1783                               The Highwayman John Austen is hanged at Tyburn
1783                               Newgate has its first public hangings
1788                              Transportation resumes but to Australia. Over 162,000 are transported there up to 1868
1789                              The last Burning at the Stake is held at Newgate
1790                              Burning at the Stake for treason is abolished
19th Century              Public mutilations and maiming is abolished
1810                               In English and Welsh Law there are 222 Capital offences
1814                               The last hanging for Poaching takes place
1814                               The Treason Act removes disembowelling and quartering as part of the punishment
1817                               Public Whipping of Women Abolished
1820                               The Cato St. Conspirators are the last to be hanged and decapitated
1822                               The last hanging for stealing from a shop
1823                               The Punishment of Death Act allows judge’s discretion on Capital crimes
1829                               The last hanging for Forgery takes place at Newgate
1830                               The last hanging for Piracy takes place at Execution Dock
1832                               The Anatomy Act no longer allows dissections on the cadavers of convicted Murderers

1832                               The Punishment of Death Act decreases the number of Capital offences to 60
1832-7                           Robert Peel further reduces the number of Capital offences
1834                              Condemned bodies hanging in chains is abolished
1835                               The last hanging for Sodomy takes place
1836                               The Murders Act is totally repealed
1836                               The Prisoner’s Council can act as defence for those charged with serious crimes
1836                               The last hangings for Robbery takes place
1837                               The Piracy Act only now imposes Death Penalty where there is an intent to Murder
1842                               Inmates of Marshelsea Prison , The Fleet and Queens Bench all now reside in The Queen’s                                         Bench
1843                              The first legal definition of insanity is considered in defences
1844                              The Queen’s Bench is sold
1846                              The Queen’s Bench is pulled down
1850                               It is claimed that the real site of Tyburn Gallows is 49 Connaught Square
1853                               The Penal Servitude Act introduces sentencing in prison as punishment
1855                               Borough Compter Demolished
1856                               The pinioning of the legs of prisoners to be hanged is introduced
1861                               The Home Secretary has the powers to reprieve the Death Sentence
1862                               Public Whipping Abolished
1864-66                         A Royal Commission recommends the end of The Death Penalty


1868                               The last public hanging at Newgate
1868                               The first private hangings take place
1869                               The Debtor’s Act abolishes prison for debt
1871                               The Mug Shot is introduced
1872                               The Long Drop as hanging method is introduced
1877                              The Prisons Act now brings prisons under the control of the Home Office
1878                              The first hanging at Wandsworth
1884                              The Criminal Lunatics Act means that there is an examination of those condemned to ascertain                                        sanity
1901                               The tolling of the prison bell now happens just once after an execution takes place
1902                               Newgate is closed and then demolished. 1120 men and 49 women have been executed there since                                           the switch from Tyburn in 1789, including 3 burnings
1902                               Male executions now take place in Pentonville, female at Holloway
1902                               Holloway becomes the first female only prison
1903                               First hanging at Holloway
1905                               First instance of fingerprint used in evidence
1914                               The oldest Londoner to be hanged is 71, a Leytonstone grocer
1908                               The Children’s Act means under 16s no longer hanged

1922                               Infanticide Act: the killing of a new born is no longer a Capital offence
1931                               Sentence of Death for Expectant Mothers. Mothers no longer to be hanged straight after                                        giving birth
1941                               Last man to be executed via Firing Squad takes place at the Tower of London
1946                              The last hanging for High Treason
1953                               The last hanging under Military Jurisdiction
1954                              The last double hanging at Pentonville
1955                               The last woman to be hanged, Ruth Ellis at Holloway
1957                              The Homicide Act limits The Death Penalty to five categories of murder
1957                              The defence of Diminished Responsibility comes into English Law
1960                               The last teenager to be hanged
1964                              The last hangings take place
1965                               The Death penalty now changed into life sentence
1965                               The Abolition of The Death Penalty passed
1971                               Arson in The Royal Docklands ceases to be a Capital offence
1994                              A House of Commons vote to reintroduce The Death Penalty is quashed 403 votes to 159
1998                              The Death Penalty abolished for crimes under Military Jurisdiction
1998                              European Convention on Human Rights incorporated into British Law
1998                              High treason and Piracy removed from Statute as Capital offences. Death Penalty ends
1999                              The 6th Protocol on Human Rights is signed by UK.